StEPS: Reducing Young Athlete Abuse in Sports (2023)

Beyond the StEPS:

Reducing Young Athlete Abuse in Sports

In this article we will be discussing the pros and cons of having a “no touch policy” with student athletes. We're going to break it down today on a more granular level and we're going to present research and information for you to consider and see where you fall on this topic. Oftentimes we jump and we go “I feel this way, no way could we do that” and often we don't even know what that exactly means, it's just different than what we're comfortable with. We're going beyond the steps with Grace French** to explain all the ins and outs of having a no-touch policy and what does that actually mean.

Trigger Warning: The following topics that we will discuss may trigger some readers. This could be triggering for people who have had, or are currently experiencing matters that deal with sexual abuse. We want you to make sure that you take every opportunity to protect your peace and protect your space. If you need to stop reading, please do so at any point, you can always return to our post when you are ready. We will be talking about sexual abuse, and will be touching on physical abuse, and some of the experiences have been had in the past. Take the time to protect your peace. If you're feeling any particular way about any of the topics/questions and conversations that we're discussing please step away again, protect your peace and make sure that you put your feelings and your space first and make that a priority.

Grace, can you tell us what led you to step into the creation of Army of Survivors, its purpose and why it's important to have an organization like this?

Grace: A bit of background, I grew up in the suburbs of Lansing, Michigan and had a dream of becoming a professional ballerina. At the age of 12, I was playing red rover on the playground and sprained my wrist, and that day I had gymnastics practice and a couple of performances coming up with my dance company. My parents did what seemed logical, which was to ask around for who I should go see, and everybody in the community recommended the now defamed Olympic doctor content warning perpetrator name Dr Larry Nassar. From the age of 12 to 19 I saw Larry and was sexually abused at every appointment. I never questioned it because I thought it was osteopathic manipulation that he was doing so when at in 2018 I came forward with about 500 other victims of Larry Nassar of sexual abuse and those cases spanned decades and even sports from volleyball and soccer, to diving, gymnastics and dance. We step forward as an army, to face our perpetrator and those who enabled the abuse. We saw cases from other athletes around the world begin to come forward and we recognized that this was an institutional problem, it wasn't just a problem with one perpetrator or one community. I heard from my sister survivors that they wanted to make change, and they wanted to feel empowered by the experiences that they had, to make sure that nobody else experiences the same thing that we did. About 40 of us came together in the beginning to create the Army of Survivors in order to bring accountability awareness and transparency to sexual violence against athletes at all levels.

Grace your website highlights some very staggering statistics, 7% of student athletes are victim of sexual assault, and there are over 3.75 million survivors in the US alone. That is shocking, that is absolutely shocking to hear, that such a large number (and we're talking about those are the people that we know about, right? Not even including some people we don't know about) Why do you think an organization like Army of Survivors was not created sooner?

Grace: Simply put, we weren't talking openly about sexual violence 20 or even 10 years ago. I think the “me too movement” has really brought greater awareness to sexual violence at all levels from all different intersectionalities and has given a voice to so many that were not being listened to, or who were afraid to speak up because of the backlash and the stigma that used to exist, and sometimes still does in some communities with survivors and victims coming forward with their truth. Additionally, I think the institutions that we are up against when we're talking about protecting athletes are huge and they have a lot of money, and they have a lot of power in these communities and they profit off of keeping those athletes silent. The longer those athletes keep their mouths shut or the longer they have power over them, they can continue to churn out those championships and medals and endorsements and sponsorships and therefore the power we're up against is huge.

There appears clearly to be a systemic problem in youth athletics. What do you think is the root cause that has supported a system that has harmed so many children and young adults? Why is that happening? Why hasn't there been more accountability to this point ?

Grace: I'd say at the simplest level I believe that the culture in athletics does not recognize athletes as humans or children

first before they are appreciating them as athletes. It goes athlete first, then child second. I think we need to rethink the way that we're approaching athletics. Child first as a person, and then athlete second. In a recent study done by the World Players Association called The Care Project it was found that 69% of athletes were not aware they had rights when they were children in sport. It's really easy to take advantage of those who don't understand they can demand anything different. Additionally as athletes we are taught from a young age that our body is not our own as we enter the studio, the gym, the practice. Our body belongs to the sport and to the coach and then to your point about accountability, I think it comes down to who would enforce it right now? There's not really any type of enforcement and method to incentivize studios, competitions, etc. to keep kids safe. There's no type of licenses to revoke, there's no insurance system for studios for any type of abuse so to me it really comes down to enforcement

Bri: It's a huge problem across the board and fixing that is not simple and it's not as easy as it should seem. It's clearly not simple and we find that week after week after week.

Melissa: That's just so sad, it seems so overwhelming when you say “it's just not that simple” and I also think that there's this place as a competitive athlete, and a competitive performer where you start you leave your emotions at the door, and that emotional detachment can lead to not being able to express yourself or not even being able to process the emotions that you may be feeling when you're being victimized.

(Video) CBC News: The National | Long-term care standards, Abuse in sports, Pamela Anderson

Bri: As dancers too, we're always trained to to emote and be something else, and go into a pretend world. That probably helps people escape a little bit for a minute, which is probably a little bit dangerous as well because you're not really staying in those feelings and sitting in those feelings. You're able to escape and become someone else on that stage and become someone else in the studio when you're rehearsing.

Melissa: We know this is happening at all levels, intermediate and entry-level athletics, high school sports, and even just from reading the research on your website, even at the college level we consider college level athletes to be young adults. Do you find that there's an age group when student athletes are more vulnerable to predatory behavior like this than others and if so why ?

Grace: I wouldn't say there's a specific age group, but I would say that at elite levels, at all age groups, there are studies that show that those elite levels are more susceptible to abuse. I think that has to come with this inherent identity that is connected to sport when you get to that level, and then this combined with the drive of those athletes to continue progressing in their sport, having hours of training and power dynamics between student and mentor. There are drastic differences in the power dynamics between student and mentor as you progress to an elite level because a perpetrator (for this conversation I'm just referring to any any perpetrator who has access to this athlete has more leverage to abuse at that point because they can threaten the athlete's identity the career of the athlete and then their physical and mental well-being) have much more leverage at an elite level and that's why I think elite athletes are more susceptible at any age level.

Bri: Do you think the way that we've set up the education process “I'm in a leadership position you're my student, you don't question me, you don't ask questions, you don't tell me when you're uncomfortable, because that's disrespectful”. I'm not saying we intentionally have set it up that way, but that is really how it goes if a student speaks up against something that they're told to do, or speaks up because they feel uncomfortable. Sometimes we can deem that as disrespectful in terms of the student to coach relationship. Do you think that we need to go back to the drawing board and in our studio cultures and the way we're training kids to advocate for them themselves in that space?

Grace: I think in sports, which children peak earlier, have a higher level of abuse. In gymnastics and dance you are professional at a much younger age than other sports, and so therefore that power dynamic is even worse because you have the child to adult dynamic there. Creating spaces where athletes feel that they can use their voice is so important to this subject because if you don't have an athlete or dancer that can stick up for themselves and can advocate without negative consequences, when are they ever going to do that because they're not going to want to jeopardize their career, jeopardize their friends that they have at the studio, jeopardize the relationship with or that mentor.

Melissa: We had a facebook viewer comment “we demand compliance and call it respect”. That really puts it in perspective, and it has to make you feel convicted as an educator like, “oh okay just because a child does exactly what I tell them to do doesn't necessarily mean that they respect me and because I issue commands doesn't mean that I am worthy of respect”. It's about the relationship. I do want to get to the no touch policy. Can you explain to us what it actually means to have a no touch policy in place at a dance studio?

Grace: Having a no touch policy means touch corrections are not allowed so instead of using your hands to show a dancer how to put their hip under in ala second, you teach them with your hands showing them here or demonstrating on yourself instead.

Melissa: I have seen a few times where people have decided that using the back of your hand is a better option than using the palm and have you ever seen that before?

Grace: I would say that's still touch .

Melissa: I would say that’s still touch, but they kind of use it as, it doesn't count with the back of your hand. I thought well that's not really no touch but I think that some people for some reason feel comfortable with that more so than actually using their palm. I wanted to say that to clear up that, that's not a no touch policy. Using the back of your hand is not a no touch policy. We're talking about no touch whatsoever in your studio in your studio space. I've been dancing for 38 years with what I just said, I have never worked in a studio or been a student in a studio where they had no touch policy. Do you find that the call for these policies is growing in dance and other youth sports now?

Grace: I'm definitely hearing a lot more conversation about it and I think this right here is more evidence that there is a greater call, there's more wanting to find out more about what this means and why it's important.

Bri: All of you as survivors, that step forward, that case made such an impact on the world of youth sports. How can it not be a conversation? How can you look at that and go this is just an enigma, this doesn't happen everywhere? This is happening, and even dance, in the last two years, the amount of people that are being called out for inappropriate conduct with minors and things of that nature is just staggering at this point. You guys really paved the way in terms of the conversations happening.

Melissa: What are some of the reasons that a teacher or studio owner might consider a no-touch policy?

Grace: There was a study done in 2012 that found that 25 of dancers experience post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. According to child help studies, indicate that 40% to 50% of athletes have experienced anything from mild harassment to severe trauma in sports. 40% to 50% percent! I think it's important to realize those numbers and realize that the people that you're working with most likely have experienced some type of trauma in their life and with that in mind it's important to adjust to those negative impacts that trauma can have on a person and with high levels of stress that come with trauma. What happens is that the more complex areas of the brain shut down and you go into a primitive sort of survival state and that survival brain has different reactions which are:

(Video) "Prevention of harassment and abuse in sport: The role of sports organisation" - Kirsty Burrows

Fight- which is anger, aggression, reactive, and a violence response.

Flight- which is pulling away emotionally or physically closing off not communicating, communicating or isolating freeze which is being non-reactive unemotional or being completely numb.

Fawn- which is avoiding conflict, people pleasing, not saying no, validation seeking, and being extremely un-opinionated, which I think is a lot of student dancers.

Those reactions become a pattern over time for trauma survivors, because they have been responses that have been necessary for them to survive in their past. The brain is malleable, and are dependent on the situations that cause those responses, they are widespread. Trauma survivors have an overactive stress response and touch can exasperate that especially for those who've experienced physical or sexual abuse. It doesn't matter the intent behind the touch whether it was malicious or not, it just matters how it is feeling to the survivor and they might not have control over the stress response that happens because it's biological.

Bri: The part we need to focus on is our intent. Just because it feels okay to you, you're not aware of what they're going through and having this no touch policy, if I'm hearing you right, is a way to preserve the students. We don't know what that child might be feeling or experiencing and so rather than taking the chance of putting them in an uncomfortable position or triggering a bigger reaction in them or triggering their trauma we're going to not contribute to that we're going to pull away and make sure we're protecting their space whether they've been affected or not.

Grace: Recognizing that there are so many dancers and athletes who have experienced that, that you have to change the way that you're teaching because you don't know everything that's going on, and even that athletes may not understand. I started having PTSD

symptoms far before I understood that I was going through trauma myself so it even goes further than the athlete understanding themselves that they've been through abuse.

Bri: What do you say to the educators out there that are like “I've known this student for years, I know them, I know my students, I have a good relationship, it's fine, I know the parents the parents are fine with it” How do you address that?

Grace: I think there's a deeper understanding of trauma that is not connected to knowing the family.

Melissa: I want to highlight an “aha” moment for me. When talking about the ways that you respond to trauma, the fawning way is often rewarded, especially in the dance industry. Extreme compliance, people pleasing, did I do that right, lack of being far less opinionated is actually rewarded and I think we need to as educators understand how that can be very detrimental and when you have a student who does behave like that it's not necessarily your star student, but that could be somebody who is experiencing trauma, I really wanted to highlight that.

Bri: I think it's important there is no governing body, there is no regulatory agency, so how can dance educators and studio directors and even parents get educated on the warning signs and the red flags and things that you may attribute as behavioral issues? How can they get information on that because it seems like there's a whole lot of things that people need to be aware of if they're going to be working with student athletes.

Grace: I think that's a really good point, and one of the resources that I often refer people to for education especially for parents is Darkness to Light. They have an amazing program about warning sides of abuse how to be trauma informed for parents.

Bri: Virtual dance has shown us that we can accomplish teaching without touch. Are there downfalls of a no touch policy?

(Video) Athlete Abuse

Grace: If you have a student who's extremely tactile and has to understand things with touch, that might be a challenge. The other challenge that I thought of was retraining teachers. We have to re-educate, there are ways to communicate through other experiences and auditory communication that can get you to the desired result it's just a little bit harder and that's okay we just have to be okay with having a hard time at first

Bri: We're creative people, we can figure that out I'm sure. We can overcome pretty much anything if we made it through 2020. We can certainly figure out how to implement a no-touch policy in our studio spaces

Melissa: It's a little bit harder and I think that that's where the rub is going to be with a lot of people, it's so much easier to fall back into what you already know. You have a lesson plan and it says you do this and it says you do this. We probably have to take a few steps back if we are going to institute policies like this and establish them because there's going to be a learning curve for us all.

Bri: And to give yourself grace and give your faculty grace because we're not going to get it right 100% of the time especially at first. The fact that you're taking the steps and you're trying and you're putting forth the energy, and you're recognizing this is an important issue. I think that's the bigger picture. Knowing that we're working on it, that's step one.

Melissa: Do you think, not the back of the hand model, but a hybrid model, so a hybrid model where consent from the student is paramount, it kind of gives them permission to opt in or out of a physical touch policy. Do you think that still poses the same possible issues? Do you think that that's a middle ground that we may be able to take? What are your thoughts on that?

Grace: Incorporating consent into any touch of the studio is incredibly important whether or not you have a no touch policy or a hybrid model. I think it's important to consider power dynamics when you're thinking of a hybrid model because if you're creating an environment where we mentioned before, those dancers or athletes don't feel like they have the voice to speak up, then they're not going to feel comfortable saying no. That hybrid policy basically does not exist anymore, if they don't have their voice, they don't have that power. Creating an environment first and in a culture first where athletes feel that they have a voice and are empowered would be crucial in having a hybrid model work the way that it's supposed to

Melissa: We talked about earlier there's no governing body. We always say that over and over again there's no real checks and balances in place. I think the other hard thing about possibly coming forward is who do you come forward to. There's really no place to go. Do you see that in doing this work, on the horizon do you see a reporting structure coming? Do you think there's talk of that or even the possibility that something like that can even be done in this industry?

Grace: I know that with governing bodies under USOPC they have safe sport now, but I think with dance, because there is no NGBs or organizations that are independent oversight. It would be harder and I think that's where a lot of organizations are struggling. How can we organize, as dance educators, as dance studio owners, in order to support something that could be created? I know there's a lot of conversation around enforcement and how to make sure that those incentives to keep kids safe, that there are incentives to make sure that those dancers, in environments, that they're safe for them. I think a reporting structure is incredibly important and hopefully comes about soon.

Bri: We have some really great organizations that are doing work to facilitate improvement in these areas the dance safe I think it's or the dance safe on Instagram you can follow them, they have really great resources, they've assembled an amazing team. We have Speak Your Truth Worldwide which Sierra Lauren formed. Jerry Brown at Dance Equity Association and Liberate dance artists doing a lot of great work to propel the industry forward in a lot of these ways and the thinking and of course

Let's talk about a situation where a student athlete comes forward to say they felt uncomfortable with a correction or a physical correction or an adjustment that was made, but as a dance educator your intention was not to hurt them and you didn't have that on your mind. You didn't know how do you address it without dismissing, or invalidating that student's concerns and still making them feel safe and heard?

Grace: I think it's really necessary here to talk about intent versus impact and what we've said before is even if your intention is pure the impact on the dancer is what matters the most because in order to move forward in a way where they feel as if they were heard you have to acknowledge that impact that it made because if you don't acknowledge and apologize for the impact, they are not going to feel safe coming forward about potential other negative impacts that have happened to them outside of dance. What I would say first is to acknowledge impact, apologize and then talk through what would be more comfortable in the future for other corrections and ask them how you can adjust to make sure that they feel safe and supported in their environment.

Bri: It's better obviously to address that immediately not waiting until after class or something and really just addressing it the moment the concern is brought to you and resisting the urge, clearly to react defensively because I know that's probably a natural instinct that happens when that's not what I meant, of course not absolutely right, but try to realize that you're put yourself in their shoes and react with empathy and and take accountability for it even though you didn't mean it to be harmful.

Grace: Understanding the power that you have in that moment because the way you react in that moment can potentially impact the way that they move forward in the world with other negative impacts as well.

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Melissa: We're talking about no touch student-to- teacher to student-to-student, what do you say to student to student (students like to partner stretch each other) thow does that dynamic work because they're isn't necessarily a power dynamic there but that could trigger.

Grace: It's important to acknowledge that not all violence and sport is teacher, coach to athlete, it is also between athletes, it's between trainers, doctors etc. With that I would institute a policy around consent, making sure that students understand the language that they can use in order to do partner stretching, in order to talk through that partner stretch, “am I going too far, to how does this feel, are you feeling okay?” Make sure that they're not over stretching each other because that can be extremely triggering.

Bri: What are we doing to take steps forward, I have the power to implement a no-touch policy in my studio so bam, this is a new policy I've had my faculty meeting, ideally we would want to see some training in there to to make sure everybody understands why we're having this policy and that it's not just this rule that goes unobserved half the time but you really want to enforce this, implement this, and you've had this studio culture this way for x amount of years. Now we implement this no touch policy, how do we communicate that to everybody without making it this awkward, bright shining spotlight, or do we shout it from the rooftops, that look this is the position that I'm taking with my studio, we're proud of it come on in and this is what you're gonna get! How do you breach that with the parents that have been there for years who are used to a certain way?

Grace: My policy with this would always be complete transparency and shouting it from the rooftops because in order for this to work everybody has to be on the same page as to why it's happening, first understanding the importance of a no-touch policy understanding the decision and how you got to that point first and then being transparent with those who are still at the studio and those who may be coming into the studio as well, but also I think there's an accountability and enforcement that I'm hearing you say, as well which is you've got to make sure that if you're putting this in place that you're enforcing it that you're taking accountability giving yourself grace, but also taking accountability towards those breaks in policy and making sure that you're addressing them and acknowledging them with the students

with the classes with the teachers etc.

Bri: Often times teachers are independent contractors and you may be on this road and be enlightened and have this understanding but you can't be in that room with everyone, especially if you're at a larger organization you have a larger faculty you can't be in the room 24/7 with each teacher so you really have to make sure that they understand why this is going in place exactly and giving them the tools to change the way that they have taught for so long.

Grace: Making sure that they understand alternatives because if a teacher walks into a space only knowing one way to communicate a correction and they don't have the tools to make adjustments, I think it's going to be a lot harder for them to acknowledge and accept this policy rather than if you give them the tools they'll be able to I think adjust more accordingly.

StEPS Homework:

We like to give homework on the show immediate action what is one thing that you want everybody watching to work on this week one step they can take between now and our show next week, seven days to make improvement and progress;

in terms of understanding and maybe even implementing a no-touch policy I think first I would like you all to take a look at because I do think there are wonderful resources on there that do a really good job of describing the science behind trauma so that you can deeply understand what trauma survivors are going through, to better understand why this is important and we are at the . I think the step that you can take between now and next week is to do some more research on the prevalence of abuse and support to really understand why this happens and how many people this has affected that have been affected by this take time to reflect on that and realize how you can implement different policies, no touch, an example of one of them to make sure that trauma survivors are safe that all athletes are safer in these environments that have those extreme power dynamics.

Before you take the step to implement it I'm not saying don't implement it, but if you're on the ledge and you're afraid to really go forward and what that means, and take that dive, you can just start with your classes you don't even have to tell anybody that you're doing it but see maybe it's not as hard as you think it's gonna be to implement a no-touch policy maybe you can do it and when you're ready you feel more confident in that then you take the next step.

**Grace is a classically trained dancer, dance educator and founder and president of a non-profit the Army of Survivors. Army of Survivors is a non-profit, committed to ending sexual violence against athletes through education advocacy and resources. Her work in survivors rights and advocacy for athletes rights has been globally recognized leading her to speak at the United Nations General Assembly in 2019. As a survivor of the now defamed Olympic doctor she is one of the recipients of the Arthur Ash courage award at the 2018 ESPYs as well as a 2018 Glamor women of the Year awardee.

Check out a few of the resources that has provided for you,

(Video) Dr. Gabor Maté on How to Process Anger and Rage | The Tim Ferriss Show

“Beyond the Steps 2020 Initiative" - is free professional development whether you're a studio owner, educator, dancer, parent of a dancer. It will tackle topics like racism, gender equity, diversity, sex abuse and prevention, dance science, nutrition, integrative dance. It's going to tackle a lot of really important topics, the modules have been provided by experts in the field and Apolla will be hosting it. It's 100% free, so there is no reason not to do it. You can go at your own pace and it's just extremely insightful.

Watch our full Beyond the StEPS video Below!


What actions can we take to minimize opportunity for abuse to occur? ›

Eliminate or reduce isolated, one-on-one situations to decrease risk for abuse. More than 80% of sexual abuse incidents happen in isolated, one-one-one situations with a child. Choose group situations and have multiple adults supervise children. Scan the physical environment for hidden areas and correct dangers.

What are the strategies to deal with abuse? ›

Dealing with an abusive situation can be challenging.
How to deal with abuse
  • setting boundaries.
  • educating yourself on abuse.
  • reaching out to a therapist.
  • telling loved ones what's happening.
  • discreetly documenting everything that's happened.
  • creating an exit plan.

How can athletes create a safe environment? ›

Other ways you can create a safe environment for your sports team:
  1. Stay calm and in control always.
  2. Create a list of guidelines that are “law” (ex: no name-calling, bullying, etc.)
  3. Allow athletes to be openly expressive and encouraging to others.
  4. Celebrate athlete achievement in different ways.
Apr 13, 2022

What is athlete abuse? ›

1. The verbal, physical or psychological abuse of athletes subverts the mission of sports organizations and educational institutions to provide leadership and resources for the purpose of improving the physical, mental and emotional well-being of all females through sport and physical activity participation.

What are the 3 R's to help avoid abuse? ›

As a military commander, I implore you to act on the three Rs of domestic violence awareness: recognize, respond and refer. Recognize the warning signs of domestic violence.

What are 3 ways to prevent abuse? ›

Ten Things You Can Do to Prevent Child Abuse
  1. Volunteer your time. Get involved with other parents in your community. ...
  2. Discipline your children thoughtfully. ...
  3. Examine your behavior. ...
  4. Educate yourself and others. ...
  5. Teach children their rights. ...
  6. Support prevention programs. ...
  7. Know what child abuse is. ...
  8. Know the signs.

What are 4 steps that a person can take to take action against abuse? ›

Five Ways to Take Action Against Abuse
  • Get educated. Abusive relationships are extremely complex, and usually have several forms of abuse happening within them. ...
  • The victim is the expert. ...
  • Have patience. ...
  • Learn about safety planning. ...
  • Practice self-care.

What are the 6 steps of the cycle of abuse in order )? ›

Six distinct stages make up the cycle of violence: the set-up, the abuse, the abuser's feelings of “guilt” and his fear of reprisal, his rationalization, his shift to non-abusive and charming behavior, and his fantasies and plans for the next time he will abuse.

What steps need to take place to break the cycle of abuse? ›

The Good Men Project's “How to Break the Cycle of Verbal and Emotional Abuse” recommends the following four steps to abuse recovery:
  1. Acknowledge the abuse for what it is. ...
  2. Get some support. ...
  3. Rebuild your confidence. ...
  4. Change your response.
Jul 13, 2016

How can sports abuse be prevented? ›

These types of abuse can also have long-term damaging effects on a child's psychological well-being.
5 Tips to Help Prevent Abuse in Sports
  1. Learn about the Topic. ...
  2. Create Healthy Boundaries. ...
  3. Identify and Address High Risk Areas. ...
  4. Speak Up. ...
  5. Talk to your Kids!
Mar 13, 2014

How can abuse and cheating sports be reduced? ›

How to Encourage Competition While Discouraging Cheating
  1. Teach the spirit of the game. ...
  2. Focus on Skills: Out-Play Your Opponent. ...
  3. Focus on Fitness: Out-Work Your Opponent. ...
  4. Be Willing to Lose In Order to Win the Right Way.

What are the 4 main abuse? ›

There are four main categories of child abuse: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Find out more about each below, as well as the warning signs that a child may be being abused.

What are the 7 precautionary measures to help prevent sports injuries? ›

To reduce the risk of injury:
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  • Wear the right gear. ...
  • Strengthen muscles. ...
  • Increase flexibility. ...
  • Use the proper technique. ...
  • Take breaks. ...
  • Play safe. ...
  • Do not play through pain.
Mar 20, 2017

What are the four ways to keep an athlete healthy? ›

Make sure your school athlete stays in peak competitive shape with these helpful tips.
  • Keep Hydrated. Drinking water regularly is the key to proper exercise for young athletes. ...
  • Get the Right Nutrition. ...
  • Maintain Your Energy. ...
  • Apply Sunscreen. ...
  • Treat Injuries with Heat or Ice. ...
  • Give Encouragement. ...
  • Stay in the Game.
Dec 9, 2019

What are the five methods of preventing risks and hazards in sport? ›

Risk of injury can be reduced by:
  • following the rules of the game.
  • using personal protective equipment.
  • wearing the correct clothing and footwear.
  • warming up and cooling down.
  • using the appropriate level of competition.
  • lifting and carrying equipment safely.

What are the 7 elements of the abuse program? ›

OVERVIEW of SEVEN Components
  • Screening.
  • Training.
  • Prevention.
  • Identification.
  • Investigation.
  • Protection.
  • Reporting and Response.

What is the most effective method of preventing abuse? ›

One of the most effective ways to safeguard adults who may be vulnerable to abuse or neglect is to enable them to safeguard themselves. Empowerment and choice need to be at the core of adult safeguarding and practice, working with and supporting adults to recognise and protect themselves from abuse.

What are 6 principles of safeguarding? ›

What are the six principles of safeguarding?
  • Empowerment. People being supported and encouraged to make their own decisions and informed consent.
  • Prevention. It is better to take action before harm occurs.
  • Proportionality. The least intrusive response appropriate to the risk presented.
  • Protection. ...
  • Partnership. ...
  • Accountability.

What are 4 things we can do to minimize our risk of violence? ›

Stay in well-lighted, busy areas; travel with a friend if possible; walk in a confident, assured way. Avoid known trouble spots. 4. Report crimes and suspicious activity to police; agree to testify when necessary.

What are 2 ways you can prevent violence or avoid violence? ›

  • A functioning social security system.
  • A national strategy for comprehensive violence prevention and functioning institutions for its implementation.
  • Social policies promoting and protecting the rights of children and the youth.
  • Solidarity within society.
  • A functioning law enforcement.

How can you help in minimizing the violence in the society? ›

Preventing Youth Violence
  1. Modify the physical and social environment.
  2. Reduce exposure to community-level risks.
  3. Street outreach and community norm change.

What actions should you take if harm or abuse is suspected? ›

If a child is in immediate danger, call the police on 999 straight away. We've launched a dedicated helpline for children and young people who have experienced abuse at school, and for worried adults and professionals that need support and guidance, including for non-recent abuse.

How would you manage to protect yourself if you are the one being abused? ›

5 rules to protect yourself from being a victim of violence
  1. Rule 1: Avoid bad situations. ...
  2. Rule 2: Be aware of your surroundings. ...
  3. Rule 3: Be confident. ...
  4. Rule 4: Be in control. ...
  5. Rule 5: Leave the situation. ...
  6. Bonus Rule: Be Prepared.

What are 4 major strategies for reducing crime? ›

Improving surveillance around homes, businesses or public places to deter criminals. Ensuring your property and wider community looks cared for. Changing our habits by setting rules and positioning signage in appropriate locations. Increasing the likelihood that an offender will be caught to prevent crime occurring.

What is the best way to prevent abuse? ›

10 Ways YOU Can Prevent Child Abuse
  1. Know what child abuse is. ...
  2. Report abuse. ...
  3. Educate yourself and others. ...
  4. Discipline your children thoughtfully. ...
  5. Support prevention programs.

What steps should be followed when you become aware of an abusive situation? ›

If you are aware someone is being abused
  • Do not confront the person you think is responsible for the abuse.
  • Do not disturb or destroy anything that may be evidence.
  • Do not start to investigate the situation.
  • If the person is immediate danger, you should call the emergency services by dialling 999.
Jul 7, 2021

What are the 4 R's in safeguarding? ›

The 4 Rs of Safeguarding Children is professional practice for how you can recognise, record, report and refer in the situation of child abuse.

What action should you take if you suspect an individual is being abused? ›

You can also speak to the police about the situation. Some forms of abuse are crimes, so the police will be interested. If the person is in danger or needs medical attention, call their GP (if known) or emergency services if immediate assistance is required.

What are 5 ways you can help yourself to be safer in a domestic situation? ›

You can take the following steps:
  • Opt Out. ...
  • Get Help and Support. ...
  • Take Precautionary Measures. ...
  • Get Proof of Abuse. ...
  • Be Ready for Emergencies. ...
  • Know Where to Run. ...
  • Get a Restraining Order. ...
  • Consider Counseling.
Dec 22, 2015


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