Louis Philippe I: King of the French From 1830 to 1848 - Geri Walton (2023)

Born on 6 October 1773, Louis Philippe became King of the French from 1830 to 1848. He was the son of Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon (sister-in-law to the Princesse de Lamballe). The younger Louis Philippe inherited the title of the Duke de Chartres and was known for much of his earlier life under that name.

Louis Philippe I: King of the French From 1830 to 1848 - Geri Walton (1)

Parents of Louis Phiilppe, Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon. Courtesy of Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Beginning in 1782, at the age of 9, Louis Philippe was tutored by Madame de Genlis. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought and instituted teaching techniques that were unusual and forward-thinking for the times. For example, she made sure that history was taught with the help of slides using an early image projector called a magic lantern, and botany studies were conducted by a real botanist while the children went out for their daily walk.

Madame de Genlis also believed her students should be self-reliant, sleep on hard beds, and get plenty of exercise. She in fact reputedly put lead in the boots of Louis Philippe when he went walking. In addition, it was reported that she established:

“[A] sort of charter, both polyglot and gastronomic, in vertues of which she ordered her élèves to breakfast in German, dine in English, lunch in Italian, and sup in French. Woe to the pupil that had confounded the four idioms, and not applied them to the four meals they were devoted to.”[1]

Louis Philippe also grew up during a changing time in Europe. He followed his father’s lead supporting revolution and joined the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. Then in June 1791 he become involved in the affairs of France and became a model officer.

“Entering the army at an early age, we find him when only 18 years old, commanding the 14th regiment of Dragoons, and in the year following (1792) prosecuting his first campaign in the war then waged against Austria. On the 20th of September in that he fought a Valmey, heading his troops with great valour, and on the 6th of November he drew his sword at Jemappes.[2]

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Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres in 1792 by Léon Cogniet. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

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Over time, however, Louis Philippe’s career was reported as “chequered and adventurous.” He found himself disagreeing with the more radical policies of the Republic and everything came to a head for him when he was implicated in a plot with French General Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez. It was reported they planned to ally with the Austrians, march on Paris, and restore the Constitution of 1791. Once Louis Philippe and Dumouriez’s plot was discovered they had no choice but to escape and go into exile. In the meantime, Louis Philippe’s father, now known as Philippe Égalité, was arrested based on his son’s actions. He was also seen as a traitor and executed on 6 November 1793. Of these times The Bradford Observer provided the following information stating:

“[After Philippe Égalité was arrested and guillotine as a traitor] … in company with Dumouriez [Louis Philippe] fled toward the frontiers, and, succeeded, despite the vigilance of French authorities, in gaining the safe ground of the Belgian Netherlands, then in possession of Austria. Here, though offered military employment by the Austrian government he lived for a time as a private gentleman. He also journeyed through Switzerland, visiting many cities and towns, still pursued by the French authorities, and ever escaping their hands.”[3]

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Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

It would be some twenty-one years before Louis Philippe would again set foot on French soil. During his time in exile, life was difficult. According to The Bradford Observer:

“The hardships and privations through which the royal fugitive had to pass are truly extraordinary. He actually travelled sometimes almost barefoot, and for a long period with a pack on his back. Under the fictitious name of Mr. Corby, he obtained, and from some time held the post of a teacher in a school. At last he resolved on going to America, but his funds provided insufficient, and this purpose was consequently abandoned. He travelled on foot through Norway and Sweden … and at last reached Copenhagen, where he was kindly sheltered. Ultimately what he was unable to accomplish by his own resources was brought about through the intervention of his bitterest enemies. The French Directory, despairing of tracing his retreat, or of becoming possessed of his person, opened up negotiations with him through third parties, offering to ameliorate the condition of his mother, and to permit the expatriation of his two younger brothers, at that time in prison, if he would go to America. The proposal was eagerly embraced, and in 1796, he arrived at Philadelphia, his brothers following him not long afterwards.”[4]

Although Louis Philippe had great hopes about America, it supposedly was not a pleasant stay. However, he did travel throughout the country from Maine to New Orleans and he visited and befriend at least one Native American Indian tribe. That visit that then resulted in at an interesting story:

“[H]e acted as surgeon to an Indian chief, whom he bled in his wigwam, with such success that the tribe bestowed a high, though not very covetable honour, upon the white stranger. It was custom in this tribe that the whole family, however illustrious, should sleep upon one spacious mat, the relations being all ranged according to proximity, rank, age, and other discrimination circumstances. In acknowledgement of the services rendered by the duke to the grandfather of the chief’s family, he was permitted to pass the night upon the family mat between the grandmother and grandaunt, the highest honour every conferred by the tribe upon an individual any age or colors.”[5]

Despite the honor afforded him and news spreading of his medical abilities, Louis Philippe soon took passage to England. There Louis Philippe took lodgings in Twickenham, a southwest suburb in London, where he eventually rented a house that became known as Orleans House, a Palladian villa built by the architect John James in 1710 near the Thames for the politician and diplomat James Johnston and it was while living in Twickenham that Louis Philippe supposedly “had the advantage of the best society of the day.”[6]

In 1809 Louis Philippe married Maria Amalia Teresa of Naples and Sicily, three years after meeting her in Italy. Her mother was Maria Carolina of Austria, older sister to Marie Antoinette. Like Louis Philippe, Maria Amalia was living in exile when they met. Their marriage was considered controversial partly because of her Aunt Marie Antoinette and because of Louis Philippe’s controversial dead father, Philippe Égalité. Moreover, Maria Carolina was skeptical of the marriage and did not necessarily want her daughter to marry Louis Philippe. He however convinced her that he was determined to compensate for the mistakes of his father, and after having agreed to answer all her questions regarding him, she finally consented to allow the marriage.

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Maria Amalia Teresa of Naples and Sicily in 1839. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

As to Louis Philippe’s personality and characteristics, he was once described in the following fashion:

“Louis Philippe was well read, well traveled and thoroughly conversant both with men and things. His taste was cultivated and refined, and his patronage of the arts and manufacturer most liberal and munificent. He loved money, and accumulated enormous wealth, spending an incredibly trifling amount upon himself, though maintaining his family in regal splendour, and disbursing large sums to innumerable charities. In his family circle he seems to have almost realized the patriarchal usages of ancient days and oriental climes, exercising, unquestioned, an absolute sway, and presiding over a numerous household which included even the married branches of his family. He ever cherished a tender attachment to his late sister, Madame Adelaide, … and he enjoyed the most perfect conjugal felicity with his faithful and devoted [wife].”[7]

In France, King Louis XVIII died in 1824 and was succeeded by his brother, Charles X. Unfortunately, he proved unpopular with the masses. After dissolving the Chamber, disenfranchising a great portion of electors, and restraining the liberty of the press, Parisians took up arms against him in 1830. Bloody warfare ensued that became known as the July Revolution. It also resulted in him being exiled to England and being replaced by Louis Philippe, who was raised to the throne as Louis Philippe I, King of the French and would rule from 9 August 1830 to 24 February 1848.

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King Louis Philippe I in 1841. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Louis Philippe I as a ruler also had critics. Of him it was stated:

“For if we are to say nothing but good of Louis Philippe, certainly we shall say very little. … Louis Philippe had virtues, but the chief excellencies of his character were domestic, and therefore shut up from observation, whilst his greatest faults were public, and consequently the talk of the whole world. He was a man of large ambition, but his aspirations were soulless, and utterly destitute of any really great element. He was not a patriot; his ambition was, not to raise himself by raising the people, but to raise himself at any cost. He combined the sophistry of a Jesuit with the cunning of an Old Bailey practitioner, apt to cloak his motives, skilled in disguising his true aim, he would nevertheless pursue that aim with consummate craft, but never with magnanimous boldness. He was not an eagle swooping from the sky upon his quarry, nor was he a lion of the forest springing with dreadful majesty upon his prey. He rather resembled the spider spreading his toils, or the stoat tracing in subterraneous darkness the hapless occupant of the burrow. We are far from meaning that he was sanguinary, when asserting that he was sly; he has, indeed, been commended for his antipathy to the shedding of blood, and extolled as the domestic kind, who could leave the affairs of state, to play at shuttlecock with children. He did not love war as Napoleon did; yet greatly have they erred who designate him the ‘Napoleon of peace.’ He certainly aimed at self-aggrandizement, at family alliances – per fas aut nefas. To compass his ends, he little heeded how profusely the seeds of national animosity were scattered, how irreparably national confidences were shaken, how hopelessly national advancement was postponed. … His great fault was a restless ambition, ever seeking by tortuous courses, and intricate schemings to effect purposes of questionable propriety, or absolute wrong; his whole career was the embodied wanderings of a disquiet spirit, whom no possession could satisfy, and whom no spark of transcendent greatness, or impulse of superhuman genius, impelled to the sublimer distinctions which were daily coveted.”[8]

While ruling, Louis Philippe I survived seven assassination attempts. One of the most interesting was an attempt on 28 July 1836 by Guiseppe Mario Fieschi. As Louis Philippe was passing the Boulevard du Temple with his three sons and staff a volley gun that later became known as the Machine Infernale was discharged. It was fired from the third level apartment at 50 Boulevard du Temple, which had been rented by Fieschi.

Eighteen people were killed but luckily the king suffered nothing more than a graze to his forehead while his sons escaping essentially unharmed. As to Fieschi, the gun burst when it was fired, and he was severely injured. His attempts to escape were therefore quickly thwarted and he was captured. A year later, he and two co-conspirators were guillotined. In addition, Louis Philippe ordered the artist Horace Vernet to produce a drawing of the event.

As the years passed Louis Philippe I and his government became more unpopular and some say more corrupt. On 24 February 1848, during the February 1848 Revolution, Louis Philippe I abdicated in favor of his 9-year-old grandson, Philippe, comte de Paris. A disguised Louis Philippe then took an ordinary cab under the name of “Mr. Smith” and successfully fled to England where he spent his final years incognito as the “Comte de Neuilly.”

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Louis Philippe I. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Louis Philippe I remained in exile in Great Britain until he died at 8:00pm at Claremont on 26 August 1850. He was buried at St. Charles Borromeo Chapel in Weybridge, Surrey. Of his passing Le Courrier Francais stated:

“Louis Philippe is dead. Politically he had ceased to exist. His death will not the less cause a profound sensation. After Napoleon, Louis Philippe is the man who has held the greatest place in the age. He wanted to be king, he was so, and he gave France eighteen years of peace and industry. He was a great mind, a superior character, a choice intelligence. He was courageous, and yet in 1848, he did not know how to hold the sword. He was superior in all things, and yet he always failed to have a principle in which to cause his dynasty to take root. France not the less owes homage to the memory of this great man, who possessed so many eminent qualities, and in whom posterity with not find either striking vices or sublime virtues. The country owes tears to this royal tomb; it owes above all sympathy to that afflicted family which had against it the illegitimacy of its starting point, and for it all those whom it has succored, sheltered, enriched. The death of Louis Philippe is an event. By his qualities, as by his faults, he belongs to history, but his disappearance from the changes noting in the present situation.”[9]

The Bradford Observer also noted at Louis Philippe’s passing:

“He is gone, – the child of more than a half a century of revolution and vicissitudes. His path has lain through fire and flood and stormy tempest. Amidst the most terrific developments of human passion he was nurtured, matured, and at length has disappeared. He was familiar with barricades and street warfare; he studied for fifty years the deep dark gulf of people’s discontent and vengeance. Yet to what small account, in the moment of his great exigency, was his unequalled experienced turned! Who better than Louis Philippe understood the causes of the downfall of Charles X? Who better than Louis Philippe understood the utter futility of opposing edicts and ordinances to the determined of the French populace? … Yet with all this before his eyes, the ‘King of the Barricades,’ – the very man who ascended the throne over the ruins of imperial tyranny, – was himself insane enough to encounter, knowingly, the same rock on which, but a few years before, his predecessor made shipwreck! … Louis Philippe has ever found an asylum in England. It has been in three revolutions that harbour his refuge, and its soil will now afford him a grave. Peace to his memory and his name.”[10]

Although it seemed that Louis Philippe I would forever remain in England, in 1876, his remains and those of his wife were taken to France. They were reburied at the Chapelle royale de Dreux, the traditional burial place for members from the House of Orléans. Louis Philippe was laid to rest in the family necropolis his mother had built in 1816, which he had enlarged and embellished after her death.

References:

  • [1] Morning Post, “Madame de Genlis and the Belle-Chasse Pavilion,” March 1, 1843, p. 7.
  • [2] The Bradford Observer, “Death of Louis Philippe: The Ex-King of the French,” August 29, 1850, p. 4.
  • [3] ibid.
  • [4] ibid.
  • [5] The Manchester Times and Manchester and Salford Advertiser and Chronicle, “The Life of Louis Philippe,” October 12, 1844, p. 2.
  • [6] The Bradford Observer, p. 4.
  • [7] ibid.
  • [8] ibid.
  • [9] The Observer, “Death of Louis Philippe,” September 1, 1850, p. 3.
  • [10] The Bradford Observer, p. 4.

FAQs

Who was Louis-Philippe and why was he important? ›

Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was the second person to have the title King of the French. Following the execution of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, France became a republic. He spent 21 years in exile before being made king after the abdication of Charles X of France in 1830.

Why was the French King Louis Philippe overturned in 1848? ›

His popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, and he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848. He lived out the remainder of his life in exile in the United Kingdom.

Why was Louis-Philippe forced to free? ›

Louis Philippe was forced to flee in the year 1848. As economic conditions worsened in France, Philippe was forced to give up his crown after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848. Food shortages and widespread, unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads.

Who was Louis-Philippe in 1830? ›

Louis-Philippe, known as the Citizen King, (born Oct. 6, 1773, Paris, France—died Aug. 26, 1850, Claremont, Surrey, Eng.), King of the French (1830–48).

What was a major difference between Charles Ex and Louis-Philippe? ›

B. What was a major difference between Charles X and Louis Philippe? A. Louis Philippe was liberal.

Who led the French revolution? ›

Executive power would lie in the hands of a five-member Directory (Directoire) appointed by parliament. Royalists and Jacobins protested the new regime but were swiftly silenced by the army, now led by a young and successful general named Napoleon Bonaparte.

What were the effects of the French Revolution of 1848? ›

Social and political discontent sparked revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848, which in turn inspired revolts in other parts of Europe. Workers lost their jobs, bread prices rose, and people accused the government of corruption. The French revolted and set up a republic.

What happened in 1848 in the French revolution? ›

The year 1848 in France, like in other European countries, is mostly remembered as the year of a revolution that deposed king Louis Philippe and brought Napoleon III to power as president of the second republic.

What happened to the last King of France? ›

Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; French pronunciation: ​[lwi sɛːz]; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months just before he was executed by guillotine.

Why did the French Revolution of 1848 Fail? ›

The main reason for its failure was the fact that it excluded too many people from the brave new world. As the liberals seized the unprecedented opportunity to realise their visions of national freedom, they did so in the interests only of their own nationality.

How did the French revolution fail? ›

One of the most obvious failures of the French Revolution was the Reign of Terror from 1793-94. The Terror, which was orchestrated by Robespierre and his followers, was ostensibly a way to provide for the security of the Republic by exposing traitors to the people.

What happened to Louis-Philippe after the revolution? ›

Over time, however, his popularity and support declined. An economic crisis in 1846/47 created national unrest and in 1848, his reign was ended by another revolution which established the short-lived 2nd Republic. Louis Philippe withdrew to England, where he died in 1850 at Claremont in Surrey.

Who was the first King of France? ›

Merovingian King, son of Childeric I; married Clotilde in 493; converted to catholicism in 496; extended the Frankish kingdom in France, established Paris as his capital, and considered by tradition as the first King of France; reigned 481-511.

What happened to the last king and queen of France? ›

Louis XVI was guillotined in the Place de la Révolution on January 21, 1793. His wife, Marie Antoinette, met the same fate nine months later, on October 16, 1793. Their young son, Louis-Charles, died in prison where living conditions were horrible.

What happened in the July Revolution of 1830? ›

The revolution of July 1830 produced a constitutional monarchy. Charles X abdicated on the second day of August and departed for Great Britain. The provisional government placed on the throne a distant cousin of the king, Louis Philippe of the House of Orleans, who agreed to rule as a constitutional monarch.

What were the causes of the French revolution of 1830? ›

In 1830 the discontent caused by Charles X's conservative policies and his nomination of the Ultra prince de Polignac as minister culminated in an uprising in the streets of Paris, known as the July Revolution, which brought about an end to the Bourbon Restoration.

What caused the French revolution of 1830? ›

July Revolution, French Révolution de Juillet, also called July Days, (1830), insurrection that brought Louis-Philippe to the throne of France. The revolution was precipitated by Charles X's publication (July 26) of restrictive ordinances contrary to the spirit of the Charter of 1814.

What were the causes for the revolution of 1830? ›

The movement started in France, prompted by Charles X's publication on July 26 of four ordinances dissolving the Chamber of Deputies, suspending freedom of the press, modifying the electoral laws so that three-fourths of the electorate lost their votes, and calling for new elections to the Chamber in September.

Who was the most important person in the French revolution? ›

Maximilien Robespierre, in full Maximilien-François-Marie-Isidore de Robespierre, (born May 6, 1758, Arras, France—died July 28, 1794, Paris), radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution.

Who was the first leader of the French revolution? ›

Maximilien Robespierre
Other political affiliationsJacobin Club (1789–1794)
Alma materCollège Louis-le-Grand University of Paris
ProfessionLawyer and politician
Signature
36 more rows

What are 3 main causes of the French Revolution? ›

The causes can be narrowed to five main factors: the Estate System, Absolutism, ideas stemming from the Enlightenment, food shortages, and The American Revolution.

Was the French Revolution of 1848 successful? ›

The revolution was successful in France alone; the Second Republic and universal manhood suffrage were established, but the quarrel between the supporters of the république démocratique and the partisans of république démocratique et sociale culminated in a workers' insurrection in June 1848.

What were the main causes and results of the Revolutions of 1848? ›

Jacque Droz and many other historians argue that the Revolutions of 1848 were caused by a combination of two factors– political crisis and economic crisis. Let us look at the economic crisis first. The economic crisis is divided into two major crises–agrarian crisis and financial or credit crisis.

How did the French revolution change society? ›

Not only did it put an end to the feudal system, disband a kingdom and its monarchy, and establish civil laws and fairer representation of all peoples under governance, it also served to unify and strengthen France as a country and a people.

What was the root cause of the revolt of 1848? ›

The primary causes for these revolutions stemmed from dissatisfaction with the monarchies which were at the helm of each country. The citizens were tired of feeling oppressed and controlled, and there was a widespread demand for democracy, versus a monarchy.

What were two effects of the French revolution in France? ›

Among other things, it saw the French abolishing feudalism; beheading their monarch; changing their form of government from a monarchy to a republic; forming a constitution based on the principle of equality and freedom; and becoming the first state to grant universal male suffrage.

Which of the following was a primary cause of the French Revolution of 1848? ›

Which of the following was a primary cause of the French Revolution of 1848? The French government refused to consider electoral reforms.

Does the French royal family still exist? ›

France is a Republic, and there's no current royal family recognized by the French state.

Does France still have a king? ›

France's monarchy ended with the French Revolution.

King Louis XVI of France took the throne in 1774, but food shortages and economic troubles prompted mass rebellion in the form of the French Revolution in 1789. The monarchy was then formally abolished in 1792.

Why were Louis and Marie executed? ›

The increasing revolutionary uproar convinced the king and queen to attempt an escape to Austria in 1791, but they were captured by revolutionary forces and carried back to Paris. In 1792, the French monarchy was abolished, and Louis and Marie-Antoinette were condemned for treason.

How did the French revolutions of 1830 and 1848 differ? ›

How did the French revolutions of 1830 and 1848 differ? In 1830, Charles X limited the right to vote and revolts led to a liberal/bourgeois government. In 1848, the Second Republic (men right to vote, had a one house legislature with a strong president) was replaced with the Second Empire (more similar to a monarchy).

What were the goals of the Revolutions of 1848? ›

The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states, as envisioned by romantic nationalism. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in France in February.

Was the French revolution a success or a failure? ›

The French Revolution was mostly a failure because of the ineffective execution of reforms and unnecessary massacre of lives. However it was a minor success because of the socialistic ideologies that were given birth to during the Revolution, which helped reform France into what it is today.

Why French Revolution was successful? ›

The French revolution succeeded in obtaining great power for the lower class, creating a constitution, limiting the power of the monarchy, giving the Third Estate great control over the populace of France and gaining rights and power for the lower class of France.

How many people died in French Revolution? ›

Led by Maximillian Robespierre, the Committee on Public Safety enacted a series of decrees that established a system of Terror, enforced by the state, in an effort to root out counter-revolutionaries and save the new Republic from itself. Under this system, at least 40,000 people were killed.

Did the French Revolution abolish slavery? ›

In February 1794, the French republic outlawed slavery in its colonies. Revolutionaries in Saint-Domingue secured not only their own freedom, but that of their French colonial counterparts, too.

What happened after the French Revolution? ›

The Republic of France was declared, and soon the King was put on trial. The Revolution became more and more radical and violent. King Louis XVI was executed on January 21 1793. In the six weeks that followed some 1,400 people who were considered potential enemies to the Republic were executed in Paris.

How many people were killed during the French June Days uprising? ›

Aftermath. By 26 June, the uprising was over, resulting in the death or injury of around 10,000 people, including the deaths of about 1,500 troops and about 3,000 insurgents.

Was Louis-Philippe the last King of France? ›

Louis-Philippe d'Orléans was France's last king. He took power in 1830 after the July Revolution, but was forced to abdicate after an uprising in 1848.

What is the most likely reason the revolt against Louis-Philippe? ›

What is the most likely reason the revolt against Louis Philippe led to other revolts across Europe? People in other parts of Europe were opposed to Louis Philippe. People in other parts of Europe wanted more power for the monarchy. People in other parts of Europe wanted more say in their government.

Why did the French Revolution of 1848 Fail? ›

The main reason for its failure was the fact that it excluded too many people from the brave new world. As the liberals seized the unprecedented opportunity to realise their visions of national freedom, they did so in the interests only of their own nationality.

What were the causes of the Revolutions of 1848? ›

Some historians have argued that the Revolutions of 1848 were largely caused by two factors: economic crisis and political crisis. Others have argued that social and ideological crises cannot be discounted. In many of the affected countries, nationalism was another catalyst for the revolutions.

When was Louis overthrown? ›

Faced with insurrection, Louis-Philippe abdicated on February 24, 1848, in favour of his grandson the comte de Paris.

What happened to Louis-Philippe after the revolution? ›

Over time, however, his popularity and support declined. An economic crisis in 1846/47 created national unrest and in 1848, his reign was ended by another revolution which established the short-lived 2nd Republic. Louis Philippe withdrew to England, where he died in 1850 at Claremont in Surrey.

Why was the 1848 revolt in Prussia successful? ›

Why was the 1848 revolt in Prussia successful only in the short term? The country was under foreign rule again a year later. The overthrown king was back in power a year later.

How many people were killed during the French June Days uprising? ›

Aftermath. By 26 June, the uprising was over, resulting in the death or injury of around 10,000 people, including the deaths of about 1,500 troops and about 3,000 insurgents.

Was the French Revolution of 1848 successful? ›

The revolution was successful in France alone; the Second Republic and universal manhood suffrage were established, but the quarrel between the supporters of the république démocratique and the partisans of république démocratique et sociale culminated in a workers' insurrection in June 1848.

What was the greatest failure of the French revolution? ›

One of the most obvious failures of the French Revolution was the Reign of Terror from 1793-94. The Terror, which was orchestrated by Robespierre and his followers, was ostensibly a way to provide for the security of the Republic by exposing traitors to the people.

Was the French revolution successful? ›

The French revolution succeeded in obtaining great power for the lower class, creating a constitution, limiting the power of the monarchy, giving the Third Estate great control over the populace of France and gaining rights and power for the lower class of France.

Why is the time period from 1830 to 1848 known as the Age of Revolution? ›

1830 to 1848 is rightly referred to as the age of revolution because it was during this period that the world witnessed the rise of liberal nationalism that stood in opposition to conservative regimes across Europe. Liberal nationalism is an idea where the Government is based on the free will of the people.

What are the four main causes of the French Revolution? ›

The causes can be narrowed to five main factors: the Estate System, Absolutism, ideas stemming from the Enlightenment, food shortages, and The American Revolution.

What were two effects of the French revolution in France? ›

Among other things, it saw the French abolishing feudalism; beheading their monarch; changing their form of government from a monarchy to a republic; forming a constitution based on the principle of equality and freedom; and becoming the first state to grant universal male suffrage.

Who was the last queen of France? ›

It's the 18th century at the Court of Versailles, the residence of the last queen of France, Marie Antoinette, a figure who is still controversial today. Born 1755 in Vienna, at the tender age of 14 Marie Antoinette marries heir to the French throne Louis-Auguste, who later became King Louis XVI of France.

What was the slogan of the French revolution? ›

A legacy of the Age of Enlightenment, the motto "Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité" first appeared during the French Revolution. Although it was often called into question, it finally established itself under the Third Republic.

Who was the first King of France? ›

Merovingian King, son of Childeric I; married Clotilde in 493; converted to catholicism in 496; extended the Frankish kingdom in France, established Paris as his capital, and considered by tradition as the first King of France; reigned 481-511.

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